Home Current Oracle Spatial Blog Articles • Oracle Business Intelligence Warehousing and Analytics  Spatial Summit • How far inside, is inside? Measuring actual distance. • Noding and building a polygon from single, overlapping linestrings • Analyzing Spatial Query Performance Improvements in Oracle Spatial and Graph 12c Through CrossVendor Comparison • ST_VertexN / ST_PointN  Extracting a specific point from any geometry • Convert Single Point stored in SDO_ORDINATES to SDO_POINT_TYPE • Aggregate APPEND Islands and XOR polygons • Circular Arcs in Geodetic Polygons • Some SDO_GEOMETRY/DIMINFO handling functions • Applying And Extending Oracle Spatial  Book Released • Changing all DIMINFO sdo_tolerance values for all metadata records in one go. • Building Polygons from Incomplete Linestrings using ST_PolygonBuilder • Computing Cardinal Directions to nearby geometries • Intersecting two aggregated polygon layers with SC4O • Spatial and Oracle 12c • Update Triggers and SDO_GEOMETRY Equality • Duplicate Geometry data and Data Models • CENTROID package update • How to calculate cumulative length of a linestring • Useful Package of Wrapper Functions for Sdo_Util.AffineTransforms • Compute Location from known Lat/Long point using delta easting and northing in miles • SDO_AGGR_SET_UNION • Sorting SDO_GEOMETRY data using the ORDER BY clause of a SELECT statement • Creating linestrings (2002) from points (2001) • Rounding Coordinates or Ordinates in SDO_GEOMETRY • Effects of Sdo_Geometry Ordinate Precision on Performance • Effects of Sdo_Geometry Ordinate Precision on Storage • The Spatial filtering of geometries: The effect of tolerances on relationships • Application of Delaunay Triangulation and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) in Oracle for Soils Interpolation • Selecting all SDO_GTYPE values for all tables/sdo_geometry columns in a schema • CENTROID package  Tips for Use • Announcing the Spatial Companion For Oracle (SC4O) • Filtering Rings (Oracle Spatial) • Splitting a polygon using one or more linestrings • isValid, isSimple, Dimension and CoordDim methods for SDO_Geometry • Line Merging or Collecting lines together: ST_LineMerger • ST_DeleteVertex for Oracle SDO_Geometry based on Jaspa/JTS • 3D/4D and SRID aware Conversion functions for SDO_Geometry: WKT and EWKT • Topological vs NonTopological Simplification/Generalization of Aggregated Area Geometies in Oracle • Filtering very short linestrings via bitmap function index • CENTROID For Oracle • Gridding a sdo_geometry line/polygon object (Oracle) • Finding centre and radius of a circular geometry • Constraining geometry type for sdo_geometry column in a table. • CASE Statements and SDO_GEOMETRY • The Power of Constraints and Indexes for Spatial Constraints: stopping duplicate points • Replacement for SDO_GEOM.RELATE  ST_Relate based on JTS • Changing Oracle Spatial Index Parameters on existing index • Writing Excel Spreadsheets files from within the Oracle database using Java and PL/SQL • Writing xSV (eg csv) files from within the Oracle database using Java and PL/SQL • A simple spike finder for Spatial/Locator • JTS Java class compilation for 11g and above • Random Spatial Search Procedure • Geometry Snapping using JTS in Oracle • Exposing JTS's MinimumBoundingCircle functionality • Exposing JTS's Densifier functionality • Using JTS's Comparison Functions  HausdorffSimilarityMeasure & AreaSimilarityMeasure with SDO_GEOMETRY • Free JTSbased Area/Length Functions • Handy way of systematically fixing polygon geometries with 13349 and other errors • Standalone CENTROID package now available for download • Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator  Part 4 Processing Geodetic data • Configurable Buffer: JTS and Oracle • Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator  Part 3 • Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator  Part 2 • Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator  Part 1 • Building Lines into Polygons in Oracle Locator / Spatial • Finding Intersection Points between Line and Polygon • SDO2GeoJSON • Free version of sdo_length • Alternative to my SQL based GetNumRings function • External Tables and SDO_Geometry data. • layer_gtype keyword issue when indexing linear data on 11g • String Tokenizer for Oracle • Free Aggregate Method for Concatenating 2D Lines in Oracle Locator 10g • Reducing 5 Vertex Polygon to Optimized Rectangle • Square Buffer • Converting decimal seconds to string • SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT  13356 Issues • Valid conversion unit values for Oracle sdo_geom.sdo_length() • Removing Steps in Gridded Vector Data  SmoothGrid for Oracle • Oracle Spatial DISJOINT search/filtering • Creating SDO_Geometry from geometric data recorded in the columns of a table • Concave Hull Geometries in Oracle 11gR2 • Projecting SDO_GEOM_METADATA DIMINFO XY ordinates • Instantiating MDSYS.VERTEX_TYPE • New PL/SQL Packages  Rotate oriented point • GeoRaptor Development Team • Fast Refreshing Materialized View Containing SDO_GEOMETRY and SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA function • Performance of PL/SQL Functions using SQL vs Pure Code • Implementing the BEST VicGrid Projection in Oracle 10gR2 • Making Sdo Geometry Metadata Update Generic Code • ORA13011 errors when using SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT() • Extract Polygons from Compound Polygon • Detecting sdo_geometries with compound (3point Arcs) segments • GEOMETRY_COLUMNS for Oracle Spatial • Convert GML to SDO_Geometry in Oracle 10gR2 • Spatial Sorting of Data via Morton Key • Swapping Ordinates in an SDO_GEOMETRY object • New To_3D Function • Extend (Reduce/Contract/Skrink) Function for Oracle • Loading and Processing GPX 1.1 files using Oracle XMLDB • Loading Spatial Data from an external CSV file in Oracle • Calling the Oracle Spatial shapefile loader from within the Oracle database itself • Converting Google Earth Formatted Longitude/Latitude points to decimal degrees • Implementing SDO_VertexUpdate/ST_VertexUpdate for Oracle • Implementing SDO_RemovePoint/ST_RemovePoint for Oracle • Implementing SDO_AddPoint/ST_AddPoint for Oracle • ESRI ArcSDE Exverted and Inverted Polygons and Oracle Spatial • Funky Fix Ordinates By Formula • Implementing a SetPoint/ST_SetPoint function in Oracle • Implementing an ST_SnapToGrid (PostGIS) function for Oracle Spatial • Generating random point data • Implementing an Affine/ST_Affine function for Oracle Spatial • Implementing a Scale/ST_Scale function for Oracle Spatial • Implementing a Parallel/ST_Parallel function for linestring data for Oracle Spatial • Implementing a Rotate/ST_Rotate function for Oracle Spatial • Limiting table list returned when connecting to Oracle Database using ODBC • ST_Azimuth for Oracle: AKA Cogo.Bearing • Implementing a Translate/ST_Translate/Move function for Oracle Spatial • Elem_Info_Array Processing: An alternative to SDO_UTIL.GetNumRings and querying SDO_ELEM_INFO itself • Minumum Bounding Rectangle (MBR) Object Type for Oracle • How to extract elements from the result of an sdo_intersection of two polygons. • How to restart a database after failed parameter change • Fixing failed spatial indexes after import using data pump • generate_series: an Oracle implementation in light of SQL Design Patterns • MultiCentroid Shootout • Oracle Spatial Centroid Shootout • On the use of ROLLUP in Oracle SELECT statements • Surrounding Parcels • Spatial Pipelining • Using Oracle's SDO_NN Operator  Some examples • Converting distances and units of measure in Oracle Locator • Split Sdo_Geometry Linestring at a known point • Forcing an Sdo_Geometry object to contain only points, lines or areas • Unpacking USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA's DIMINFO structure using SQL • Generating multipoints from single point records in Oracle Spatial • Object Tables of Sdo_Geometry • Oracle Locator vs Oracle Spatial: A Reflection on Oracle Licensing of the SDO_GEOM Package • FAST REFRESHing of Oracle Materialized Views containing Sdo_Geometry columns • Australian MGA/AMG Zone Calculation from geographic (longitude/latitude) data • Loading Shapefiles (SHP) into Oracle Spatial • Oracle Spatial Mapping and Map Rendering Performance Tips • The significance of sdo_lb/sdo_ub in USER_SDO_GEOM_METDATA: Do I need it? • Oracle Spatial Forum  Melbourne April 2007 • Layer_GTypes for spatial indexes • Oracle's SQL/MM Compliant Types • Tips and Tricks

Oracle Locator vs Oracle Spatial: A Reflection on Oracle Licensing of the SDO_GEOM PackageMonday September 24 2007 at 04:50UPDATES
0. Background.This reflection has come about because of the many times I have gone to sites running Oracle Standard Edition (SE or SE1) that are, accidently, using some of the “geoprocessing” functions in the SDO_GEOM package that are licensed only for use with Enterprise Edition (EE). Oracle XE adds to this confusion as it is shipped with the complete SDO_GEOM package. Where a restricted use exists for a certain SDO_GEOM package “geoprocessing” function, that restriction also applies to its related ST_* function in the SQL3/MM (or OGC) type library. 1. Licensing.1.1 Introduction.Oracle Locator is a cut down version of Oracle Spatial Standard Edition (SE/SE1) database installations. From Appendix B of the Spatial User Guide we see:
Much confusion exists about what is licensed and what is not wrt Locator. What is actually licensed is clearly documented in Appendix B of the Spatial User guide. Because, this article concentrates on the SDO_GEOM package functions and procedures, we note that only those functions listed in Table B1 are licensed. These are: SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE() There is no confusion about the other, selfcontained, packages as these are only installed for Enterprise Edition. These packages are:
1.2 Why confusion?Why is there such confusion about the user of the SDO_GEOM function other than the three mentioned above in Standard Edition databases? Simply put, when an SE database is created using Oracle’s DataBase Configuration Assistant (DBCA), all the functions and procedures in SDO_GEOM are installed: not just the actual three that are licensed for SE (see above). (The installer should be fixed to ensure that these are not installed.) Coupled to this is the fact that very few daytoday practitioners read the documentation and most certainly do not read or are a party to the license agreements negotiated and signed by management. Users simply connect to the installed software and start using it. When one of these users describes the SDO_GEOM package in SqlPlus (DESCRIBE MDSYS.SDO_GEOM) all SDO_GEOM functions are displayed: they therefore assume that use of these must be allowed. Finally, much/most commercial software used in the GIS world is keycoded to stop use of unlicensed components: that Oracle doesn’t do this is not widely known and contributes to the unintentional breaking of the license agreement. 1.3 A way out of this?Is there a way out of this problem? Well, certainly, users should try and familiarise themselves with the license and try and conform to it. After all, Oracle owns the software and has the right to set whatever terms they want with respect to the licensing and use of their software. I personally have a view that some of the “geoprocessing” functions in the SDO_GEOM package are not “geoprocessing” functions at all but properties of a spatial object and should be free of license restrictions. Specifically: MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA() With respect to the other functions, eg SDO_UNION, SDO_INTERSECTION etc, while these are “geoprocessing” functions they are a necessary part of the OGC and SQL3/MM standard for an implementation of a spatial type that that Oracle should allow their use within Locator for no additional charge. However, they have decided otherwise and I respect that decision: perhaps they could consider licensing these functions independently of other Enterprise Edition Spatial features (eg LRS etc)? Certainly, most of the Locator users I know would happily part with $1,000 per cpu to be able to use these functions. However, until such a thing happens, I will now outline some of the common SDO_GEOM functions that are illegally used in Locator installations demonstrating how they can be replaced by SQL or functions that are licensed for use. 2. MBR Functions.2.1 SDO_GEOM Functions.The SDO_GEOM package contains the following functions: MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR The SDO_MBR SDO_MBR function returns an optimized rectangle SDO_GEOMETRY object:
To access the actual optimized rectangle ordinates one can do this:
To “flatten” this into a single row, one could use the Locator licensed SDO_UTIL package’s GetVertices function as follows:
Sensibly, however, most people simplify the SQL to access the lower left and upper right ordinates of the MBR optimized rectangle by using the provided MIN/MAX MBR functions as follows:
So how do we avoid the use of these licensed functions in Locator installations? 2.2 SQL.Firstly, one should note that the SDO_AGGR_MBR aggregate operator is licensed for use in Locator. The MBR functions in SDO_GEOM can be replaced with something that would conform to Oracle licensing in a trivial amount of time. For example, the above SQL could be replaced by (a slightly different form of the SDO_MBR example above):
To return a single row we could do this:
Or we could do this:
(Note: there are many ways, in SQL, to “skin the cat”. I have deliberately done this in this article.) 2.3 SDO_3GL.2.3.1 EXTENT_OF_OBJECT.Locator also includes the SDO_3GL package which is not mentioned in any of the licensing documents. One can conclude from this that the SDO_3GL package is not constrained by Locator license restrictions. Investigating SDO_3GL we find that the package contains the following MBR procedure.
Note that this is a procedure not a function: it cannot be used in SQL SELECT statements. The only way we could use this would be via creating a set of functions that encapsulate this procedure and return the relevant elements. I will not do this here as these functions are relatively simple to write and I have already encapsulated them in an MBR object which is included in my free PL/SQL packages I will demonstrate their use in Section 2.3.3 below. 2.3.2 MBR_GEOMETRY.The SDO_3GL package also contains the MBR_GEOMETRY function whose signature is: FUNCTION MBR_GEOMETRY RETURNS SDO_GEOMETRY Argument Name Type In/Out Default? ——————————————— ——————————— ——— ———— GEOM SDO_GEOMETRY IN DIM SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN This can be used to return the extent of a feature as follows:
2.3.3 MBR package.The above query using my MBR package would be:
The MBR package only uses SDO_3GL.EXTENT_OF_OBJECT procedure and so does not break Standard Edition license restrictions. The MDSYS dependencies of the MBR package can be ascertained as follows:
In more detail (connected as CODESYS):
But what about SDO_GEOM? Using:
No SDO_GEOM package functions are being used by my MBR package. 3.0 Centroids.3.1 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID.Now, the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function is an Enterprise feature. The SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function computes a mathematically weighted centroid that does not necessarily fall within a polygon as in the following example: This function is called as follows:
Elapsed: 00:00:00.01 But what if you don’t have an Enterprise license? You have two other options for generating a centroid from geometry data using Standard Edition functions. 3.2 GEOM.SDO_CENTROID.Firstly, you could use my GEOM package’s sdo_centroid function. This is a powerful function that is different from Oracle’s SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function in that it guarantees that a centroid will fall within a polygon and not outside it (a “paracentroid”). It will also place the centroid in the largest of all parts of a multipart polygon and will not place a centroid inside any hole in any of the parts. We call this function as follows:
3.3 SDO_3GL.CENTROID.Secondly, you can use the CENTROID function in the SDO_3GL package. This will return exactly the same result as the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function. You use it as follows:
4.0 Buffers.4.1 SDO_GEOM.BUFFER.The SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER function is also licensed only for use in Enterprise Edition. We use this function as follows:
But how can we generate a buffer in Standard Edition? Again, we can look to the SDO_3GL package.
Which we use as follows:
Are the buffers generated by the sdo_geom and sdo_3gl functions the same?
However, we now meet another problem: SDO_GEOM.RELATE is an Enterprise function! How can we check the relationship between two object with Locator? Can we find a solution in the SDO_3GL RELATE functions?
What does this mean? Well, if we do this:
So, a bit mask of all 1s cannot mean EQUAL. I will investigate these masks and functions further to see what else I can discover and report back on them in an edited version of this article. 5.0 Area and Length5.1 CommentIt has always amazed me that these two functions: MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA() …are considered geoprocessing as these are properties of a geometric object and not something that results from the interaction of two objects. Still, it is Oracle’s right to license their technology as they see fit. But, given that these two functions are used an enormous amount in Locator installations we need a way out of the licensing dilemma. There are two approaches. One is to see what is in the MDSYS.SDO_3GL package; the other is Java Topology Suite. I will only cover the first here and leave the latter for another blog article. 5.2 SDO_3GL functions.The MDSYS.SDO_3GL package contains two procedures (not functions):
Note that the two procedures implement both the area and length processing. Both take a flag that indicates which property is required: length or area. The latter includes a UNIT field in case the caller wants the result in different units from the default: to use the units the SDO_SRID property of the SDO_GEOMETRY object must be nonNULL and the value must exist in the MDSYS.SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table.
Experimenting with the FLAG argument shows that: 1 computes the Area of the geometry object (Note: This is counterintuitive as the our parameters in the SDO_3GL.LENGTH_AREA procedures are the revers of this.) In my GEOM package I have created four “wrapper” functions that provide a dropin replacement for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA and SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH functions. Here is the definition of the GEOM.AREA implementations.
Finally, an example to show that these functions return the correct results.
6.0 Java Topology Suite – Spatial Companion For Oracle (SC4O)The Java Topology Suite is a free API for spatial data that is capable of being deployed into the JVM that is shipped with Oracle 10gR2 and 11g. JTS has a set of “geoprocessing” functions that could be used as “drop in” replacements for the Enterprise Edition licensed functions in the SDO_GEOM package or to complement the existing package. In investigated this capability over the past year or so and have now released a set of Java classes that wrap JTS and Jaspa functions. This package of functionality is called the Spatial Companion for Oracle. The package can be downloaded from here

Comment [60]
Hello,
In 3.2 GEOM.SDO_CENTROID, you mention your GEOM package’s sdo_centroid function. I need to be able to calculate what you call the “paracentroid”. How can I obtain this package? Can you please give pricing information?
Thanks,
Hugo
— Hugo Tagle · 17 October 2007, 22:27 · #
Hugo,
The PL/SQL packages are free and can be downloaded from here
regards
Simon
— Simon · 17 October 2007, 22:37 · #
Simon. First, my thanks and compliments on your blog. I will be a regular visitor. I have some confusion on the PL/SQL packages. On this page you reference vb_library.zip in the link above, but on the downloads page there is a file spatialdbadvisor_oracle_spatial_types_and_packages.zip
Is there some dependence one on the other?
Thanks.
Bill,
I have corrected the link: thanks for pointing it out.
There is no dependence between the vb and pl/sql libraries.
regards
Simon
— Bill · 19 December 2007, 14:15 · #
Hi Simon. I’ve been looking into Locator on 11g and it looks like they are claiming compliance with SQL/MM Spatial except for Relate, Intersection, Union and ST_SYMMETRICDIFFERENCE. This seems like it goes a long way toward uncrippling Locator. I’d love your perspective.
Cheers,
Bill
— Bill · 9 January 2008, 13:32 · #
Bill,
The SQL/MM Spatial type library at 11g remains the same as the one at 10gR2 except that now the ST_* objects can be indexed (not just the internal sdo_geometry object) which means search functions such as ST_Within() now use the spatial index if it is defined eg
I will now turn to the Relate/Intersection/Union etc and other disputed functions in the sdo_geom package.
The Appendix B of the Oracle® Spatial Developer's Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) says that only the following SDO_GEOM package functions and procedures are licensed for use:
* SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER,
* SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE,
* SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT,
* SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT
Note: SDO_Buffer is included at 11g (it was not in Locator at 10gR2).
However, the PDF ORACLE LOCATOR Location Features in Oracle Database 11g says that Locator includes:
* Spatial functions for distance, area, and length
Yet the actual 11g Appendix B documentation does not include SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA() or SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH()!
Now the PDF above says that Locator 11g includes all SQL/MM types and operators except four member methods:
* ST_RELATE,
* ST_INTERSECTION,
* ST_UNION, and
* ST_SYMMETRICDIFFERENCE.
Note that SQL/MM for Locator includes ST_AREA and ST_LENGTH but that the licensing does not allow for their equivalent in the SDO_GEOM package. This argument can be extended to other functions like SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID, SDO_GEOM.SDO_CONVEXHULL, SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE etc as the related functions in the SQL/MM type library  ST_CENTROID, ST_CONVEXHULL and ST_DIFFERENCE  are included in Locator.
So, we end up with the crazy situation of this being illegal for Locator 11g:
but this is legal
So, the licensing is still confused at 11g. All I can recommend is that where you need to use a disputed function in the sdo_geom package, use the related function in the SQL/MM types and operators library.
Finally, the license restriction is arbitrary and restricts (in a fairly fundamental manner) end user manipulation of spatial data in Locator. It also makes Locator less functional that its competitors: namely SQL Server 2008 "Katmai" (all versions including Express) and PostGIS. Perhaps the fact that these functions are available for free in these products will finally force Oracle to make them free for use in Locator.
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 14 January 2008, 04:47 · #
Good stuff Simon, thank you. I agree that SQL Server 2008 and PostGIS should (hopefully) push Oracle to revisit.
— Bill · 15 January 2008, 10:34 · #
Simon, First of all thank you for maintaining this great site. I am trying to use codesys sdo_centroid function in Oracle 11g(11.1.0.6). But I am getting ORA4030 process out of memory errors when I tried the following query. It works fine in 10.2.0.3.
Here is the query.
select codesys.geom.sdo_centroid(SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 4326, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(98.188095, 31.467118, 98.18846, 31.468043, 98.195101, 31.466029, 98.195631, 31.466992, 98.200194, 31.465637, 98.198701, 31.462233, 98.198678, 31.462179, 98.198454, 31.461669, 98.198437, 31.461631, 98.197313, 31.459068, 98.196229, 31.459431, 98.196131, 31.459465, 98.196118, 31.459469, 98.194407, 31.460043, 98.194698, 31.460734, 98.196271, 31.464479, 98.188095, 31.467118)),0.000001) from dual
Is geom package tested in 11g? Also does codesys package accept tolerance in meters or decimal degrees? I know Oracle spatial accepts in meters.
Thanks for your help.
Bala
— Bala · 23 January 2008, 02:52 · #
Bala,
This response is for anyone else out there who may follow this thread as Bala and I have resolved the issue via private communication.
Firstly, the answer. It appears that Bala solved the problem as follows:
“Before compiling the GEOM package I have to set the following parameter.”
alter session set plsql_optimize_level=1;
Thanks Bala, I have added this to the compilation script for my packages and uploaded them to my website.
Bala came to this workaround after trying a slightly modified version of the sdo_centroid function. (I inspected my original code and, even though it works on all versions up to 11g, modified it so that the core procedure uses pipelining to cut down on memory use and improve performance).
“Even with modified code it’s still leaking the memory and throwing ORA04030 errors. Like you said it might be a bug in 11g. I will open a TAR with Oracle.”
Thanks for the great feedback, Bala.
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 29 January 2008, 06:26 · #
Simon,
In section 4 above you showed how MDSYS.SDO_3GL.RELATE returns a bitmask. It looks like these are defined in MDSYS.MD$RELATE. The inserts for this are in <ORACLE_HOME>/md/admin/relate.sql
So 111111111 would be OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT.
Cheers,
John
— John O'Toole · 16 April 2009, 14:39 · #
Wow! This is awesome information! Does anything similar exist for the differences between locator and spatial in 10g?
— Justin Slootsky · 8 May 2009, 20:07 · #
Justin,
While this article was based on XE, XE is a 10gbased database. The comments made here all apply for 10G, and, sadly, 11g.
My complaint about Area and Geoprocessing functions (SDO_UNION etc) being reserved to Enterprise Edition (ie Spatial) and so cost money, is because these methods are standard methods of a geometry datatype as defined by OGC SFS 1.1 standard. So, now we see Microsoft’s new spatial types in SQL Server 2008 including these functions without charge, while Oracle charges for them.
Perhaps things will change: but I don’t know when. Version 12 perhaps?
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 9 May 2009, 02:48 · #
Simon,
Nice post !
This ‘111111111’ bitmask is the rowmajor form of the matrix in the nineintersection model.
In this model the intersection of two objects’ interior, exterior and boundary are specified (see the Oracle Spatial User Guide for more info)
regards,
—olaf
— Olaf · 14 September 2009, 12:41 · #
Simon,
I do very much appreciate this website, it is a great help in getting out of the confusion in Oracle Spatial Licensing, thanks a lot for that.
Unfortunately the bitmask retrived from the sdo_3gl.relate function seems to be not fully usable. The only two outputs I get are ‘111111111’ and ‘001001111’ which would mean “OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT” and “DISJOINT”. I guess it is not the real relationship between the two geometry objects but rather only that of their bounding box (for use during index retrieval) (at least using “mask=determine”.
There are individual functions for the single relationships, however the arguments are not clear to me.
Probably not seen with grace by Oracle, there is even functionality to modify geometries within sdo_3gl: sdo_3gl.geom_operation.
How would one interpret licensing information for use of those?
— benjamin · 13 November 2009, 14:48 · #
Hi Simon,
Thanks a lot for your article, It has been of great help to me.
Having a look at licensing terms of Locator, I see that making use of “SDO_AGGR_UNION”, is not allowed, can you confirm on this?
I see that this function is being used in method “Filter_Rings”, thus I tend to think It is allowed indeed, but I would like a confirmation on your behalf if possible…
Many thanks again and keep up the great work!
Eduardo.
— Eduardo Molina · 9 March 2010, 12:15 · #
Eduardo,
Yes, SDO_AGGR_UNION is not licensed for use with Locator.
Nor are the following geoprocessing functions:
sdo_geom.sdo_difference;
sdo_geom.sdo_xor;
sdo_geom.sdo_intersection;
sdo_geom.sdo_union.
(Note: Filter_Rings also uses SDO_DIFFERENCE.)
This means that the Filter_Rings function in my GEOM package can only be used, legally, with Spatial (an Enterprise Edition option) and not Locator.
Filter_Rings could be rewritten for Locator only. But I will only do so if someone wants it.
regards
Simon
— Simon · 10 March 2010, 02:43 · #
Hi Simon,
Many thanks for your quick response.
Oracle has a weird licensing scenario considering that those functions are meant for very basic geometry operations, don’t you agree?
It is not the Filter_Rings function what I am interested in, although I came across it when looking for references to the function I need to use in my project, SDO_AGGR_UNION.
Specifically, I reached your site while looking for a custom function that does the same basic functionality that SDO_AGGR_UNION without infringing the licensing terms for Locator..
Is it possible to build such function without using SDO_UNION or any other function that is part of the Spatial Enterprise option?
I have also noted that the new SDO_AGGR_SET_UNION included in 11.2 is ALLOWED for the Locator license (Its use is not excluded from the Locator license in Appendix B)
This function is the only thing I need to use from Locator, as my only need is to precalculate a few custom maps by grouping zip codes into bigger areas and then save them as shp files to use them at a web app to show sales data by region (maybe I should have started my comment with this point..).
Do you know if this new function is allowed in Locator for 11.2?
Many thanks again for you kind answer,
Eduardo.
— Eduardo Molina · 10 March 2010, 09:38 · #
Eduardo,
I don’t agree with Oracle’s license restrictions for such fundamental geoprocessing functions. (They are also a part of the ST_Geometry OGC/SQL standard though Oracle restricts their use.) Oracle has chosen to implement a typical upsell approach wrt licensing which does not seem appropriate to something so basic. For SDO_LRS, topology etc, yes, but not basic geoprocessing.
But it is their product. Time and competition will change this (PostGIS and SQL Server both provide aggregates for free).
Yes, it is possible to build an alternate UNION etc aggregates that would work in Locator but it would take me at least a week to do so and I would only be willing to do so if paid for the work.
SDO_AGGR_SET_UNION looks like a candidate but until I get my hands on it I can’t say for sure.
In your case, unless you want to dynamically do your postcode aggregation, why not simply use an external open source GIS package to do the aggregation for you from the source shp files and then save them back. Why not try QGis?
regards
Simon
— Simon · 10 March 2010, 10:15 · #
Thanks Simon,
I was going to reply but I think that I should give you some more background so that you could hopefully give me some advice on our designed approach to these mapping implementation and It could be lengthy and slightly offtopic, could I contact you via email?
— Eduardo Molina · 10 March 2010, 17:39 · #
I install software only in standard edition and exclude SPATIAL. If I want to just then add LOCATOR at a later date do I just run
ordinst.sql
iminst.sql
thanks
Alan
— Alan · 5 May 2010, 12:26 · #
hi, i want to create a database design for oracle spatial database having a field shape with data type sdo_geometry.can u plz suggest me in which version of visio and how will i make it possible.
— Mhunter · 13 May 2010, 07:38 · #
I’m sorry I do not use Visio for my data modelling. If you want a free tool that works quite well try SQL Power Architect
regards
Simon
— Simon · 13 May 2010, 08:31 · #
I want to just then add LOCATOR at a later date do I just run
— batterie · 24 June 2010, 10:02 · #
Alan and Batterie,
I really have no experience with upgrading Locator to Spatial. Alan may be right: try it on an empty database and see if it works.
Otherwise, I am sure this issue has been covered on the Oracle Technology Network Spatial Discussion Forum
Simon
— Simon · 1 July 2010, 05:35 · #
From a developers point of views, it is also quite a hack to determine if Locator or Spatial is available on the box.
One needs to perform:
“SELECT SDO_VERSION() FROM DUAL”
Where an error says: No Locator, No Spatial
An empty record says: Locator is installed
A version string returned says: Spatial is installed.
— Patrick · 23 September 2010, 13:52 · #
Too true. Thanks for reminding my readers about this useful function.
Simon
— Simon Greener · 25 September 2010, 07:53 · #
Wow. this stuff is really confusing but I think I finally get it thanks to you.
— DaftDomain · 26 October 2010, 19:00 · #
I am glad to came here…
— labatterie · 14 December 2010, 08:53 · #
just then add LOCATOR at a later date do I just run
— forklift courses · 15 December 2010, 15:23 · #
Forklift,
Can you be more specific?
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 17 December 2010, 10:28 · #
Nice information, many thanks to the author. It is incomprehensible to me now, but in general, the usefulness and significance is overwhelming. Thanks again and good luck!!!
— Careprost · 12 March 2011, 06:35 · #
There are may person searching about that now they will find enough resources by your post,
— Networking solutions · 12 May 2011, 11:53 · #
Perfect!!
thanks for your work,
Sergi,
— Sergi · 3 June 2011, 11:04 · #
Is anybody using MapInfo Professional with Locator in any edition of Oracle 10g? I’m especially interested to hear from anybody who is using Oracle XE.
— Lester @ Adult Trike · 27 June 2011, 07:42 · #
I have found your site on Google and the information written on your post is interesting. I enjoy reading this one, looking forward to reading more of your posts!!
— friv · 10 July 2011, 13:20 · #
Using SDO_3GL istead of SDO_GEOM doesn’t work on IBMAIX and Oracle 10.2.0.4 standard edition
— Karl Mann · 20 July 2011, 13:38 · #
Karl,
Can you explain what “doesn’t work”? Permissions? What?
Simon
— Simon Greener · 21 July 2011, 00:31 · #
Your blog is great , thx for the tips
— Ben10 · 24 August 2011, 03:12 · #
Thanks you so much for such a great information. I will definetely recommend your website!
— y8 · 24 August 2011, 09:08 · #
Hi Simon,
I’m trying to install your free PL/SQL packages on a 10.2.0.5 SE database on SOlaris. I’m getting a lot of errors in the logs. Initially I thought this was to do with the grep command in the install.sh script but I’m not so sure about that now. Can I email you direct with some examples of the errors? I think this web page is fantastically useful for anyone struggling with Oracle Locator and its’ restrictions.
— Karen · 24 August 2011, 16:19 · #
Some geometry functions and the SDO_AGGR_MBR spatial aggregate function
— andkon · 15 September 2011, 17:29 · #
Andkon,
What do you mean by some geometry functions? You want access to sdo_geom functions in Locator that are only licensed in Spatial? Which ones?
SDO_AGGR_MBR is available in both Locator and Spatial. Are you referring to SDO_AGGR_UNION etc? What do you want me to do?
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 15 September 2011, 22:56 · #
Where an error says: No Locator, No Spatial
An empty record says: Locator is installed
A version string returned says: Spatial is installed.
— starfall · 3 October 2011, 21:22 · #
Starfall,
This, and your website reference, looks like spam (with a few correct keywords). So, please let me know what is your actual problem or I will delete your comment.
regards
Simon
— Simon Greener · 4 October 2011, 03:03 · #
great post
This is a very informative article.I was looking for these things and here I found it. I am doing a project and this information is very useful me.
— Y8 · 2 November 2011, 02:18 · #
Oracle Locator is a feature of Oracle Database 10g Standard Edition. Locator provides soul features and services available in Oracle Spatial.
— dc credit union · 21 November 2011, 12:18 · #
Can I email you direct with some examples of the errors? I think this web page is fantastically useful for anyone struggling with Oracle Locator and its’ restrictions.
— Full face Helmets · 21 December 2011, 10:17 · #
Because, this article concentrates on the SDO_GEOM package functions and procedures, we note that only those functions listed in Table B1 are licensed. These are:
— Vitiligo Symptoms · 6 March 2012, 18:47 · #
I’m trying to install your free PL/SQL packages on a 10.2.0.5 SE database on SOlaris Run
— a game · 26 March 2012, 14:17 · #
Both take a flag that indicates which property is required: length or area. The latter includes a UNIT field in case the caller wants the result in different units from the default: to use the units the SDO_SRID property of the SDO_GEOMETRY object must be nonNULL and the value must exist in the MDSYS.SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table.
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I’m sorry I do not use Visio for my data modelling. If you want a free tool that works quite well try SQL Power Architect
regards
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I’m looking at the Locator index of the Oracle Spatial Developer’s Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1):
http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B28359_01/appdev.111/b28400/sdo_locator.htm#SPATL1274
I see that the verbiage for Table B1 (SpatialRelated Features Supported for Locator) now reads:
All SDO_GEOM package subprograms except for the following: SDO_GEOM.RELATE, SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE, SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION, SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION, SDO_GEOM.SDO_VOLUME, SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR
Have the licensing terms been relaxed so that much of the above is now moot?
Best regards,
Kieron.
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